The lack of opportunity resulting from being from a low SES family has been a problem since the mid nineteenth century. Schools will not close the observed achievement gap until the gap in opportunity to learn has been closed. Only once ensuring satisfaction of the basic needs of students are met can an effective school leader then address intrinsic motivation as the school’s core beliefs, and core values by promoting capitalization of interest and relevance, providing realistic choices among tasks, teaching skills necessary for success, focusing on mastery, helping students set appropriate goals, providing appropriate feedback, limiting use of external constraints in teaching, and fostering relatedness in the classroom.
children in Very Low- and Very High-Socioeconomic Status First-Grade," American
Educational Research Journal, Summer, 2000, vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 441-478.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation,
social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.